Why is Jakarta Sinking?

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current trends continue, half of the city could be submerged by 2050. So, why is Jakarta sinking?

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Jakarta, Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current trends continue, parts of the city could be submerged by 2030. There are a number of reasons why Jakarta is sinking, including natural causes and human activity.

Natural causes
One of the main natural causes of Jakarta’s sinking is its location. The city is situated on a coastal plain near the confluence of three large rivers. This combination of geography means that the city is constantly being hit by high tides and river floods. In addition, the city sits on top of a soft layer of clay, which makes it vulnerable to subsidence (the gradual sinking of land).

Human activity
Human activity has also contributed to Jakarta’s sinking. The city has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and this has led to an increase in construction. To make way for new buildings, large tracts of land have been cleared, and this has caused the soil to compact and subside. In addition, the widespread use of groundwater has caused the water table to drop, which has also contributed to subsidence.

The effects of subsidence are already being felt by residents of Jakarta. In some parts of the city, buildings are beginning to crack and sink into the ground. With further subsidence expected in the years ahead, the situation is likely to worsen unless something is done to stop it.

The Geography of Jakarta

Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. The city is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River. Jakarta is sinking because it is built on swampy land and is constantly being hit by heavy rains. The city is also being inundated by rising sea levels due to climate change.

The Land

Jakarta is built on a swampy, low-lying area of land that is slowly sinking. The land itself is mostly composed of clay, which is not very stable and can easily erode. The combination of the soft land and the weight of the buildings and roads has caused the ground to sink in some areas by as much as 10 feet (3 meters)!

The heavy rains that often hit Jakarta also contribute to the problem. When the rain falls, it quickly expands the clay soil, which causes it to shift and sink. The extra water also makes it harder for trees and plants to grow, which can further add to the problem.

The Climate

Jakarta has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with relatively consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year. The city sees high precipitation levels, especially during the wet season. Despite this, however, Jakarta often experiences drought conditions. The city has a lengthy wet season, which runs from October through June. This is followed by a dry season that lasts from July through September. Temperatures during the wet season are generally in the low to mid 30s Celsius (mid 80s to low 90s Fahrenheit), while they hover around 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) during the dry season.

The History of Jakarta

Jakarta, Indonesia is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. It is home to more than 10 million people and is slowly sinking into the Java Sea. The city has a long history, dating back to the 4th century. Let’s take a look at the history of Jakarta and why it is sinking.

The Dutch Colonial Era

Jakarta officially began as a small fishing village named “Sunda Kelapa” during the 4th century. In 1527, the Sultanate of Banten was established in the area and began to tax the villagers heavily. In order to avoid paying these taxes, the villagers moved to an area that is now known as “Jakarta Old Town” or “Kota Tua.”

In 1619, the Dutch East India Company took control of Jakarta from the Sultanate of Banten and renamed it “Batavia.” The Dutch colonialists then began to develop Batavia into a major trading hub for Spice Islands. To accommodate this growth, they built canals and dams which altered the flow of water in the area and caused some parts of Batavia to sink.

As Batavia (present-day Jakarta) continued to grow and develop during the Dutch colonial era, more canals were built for transportation purposes. These canals further altered the water flow in Jakarta and caused additional parts of the city to sink.

The Japanese Occupation

The Japanese occupation of Jakarta took place from 1942 to 1945, during the Second World War. The Japanese arrive inBatavia on 8 March 1942, four days after the Netherlands had capitulated. This coincided with the arrival of news of the fall of Singapore. The Dutch had few defenses in place, as many European personnel had been evacuated following the Fall of France in 1940.

The Japanese transferred control of Jakarta to the Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno on 25 March 1944. In preparation for independence, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed a Manifesto Kebangsaan (or “Nationalists’ Manifesto”) on 17 August 1945, although independence was not formally declared until 17 December 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor’s surrender in Tokyo.

Independence and Modernization

In 1949, Jakarta was proclaimed Indonesia’s capital, replacing Batavia. The city underwent a massive modernization program during the 1950s, which included the construction of a new presidential palace and the expansion of the airport.

Jakarta continued to grow rapidly in the 1960s and ’70s, with the construction of new office buildings, hotels, and shopping centers. The city also became a center for the arts, with many museums and theaters built during this time.

The 1980s saw more growth and development in Jakarta, with the completion of a new stock exchange and a number of skyscrapers. However, the city was also marred by political unrest and violence during this time.

Jakarta underwent another period of rapid growth in the 1990s, with the completion of several new office towers and malls. The city also became home to a number of international events, including the Miss World pageant in 1996 and the Asian Games in 1998.

Today, Jakarta is Indonesia’s largest city and one of Southeast Asia’s most important economic centers. The city continues to experience population growth and development, although it faces challenges such as pollution, traffic congestion, and poverty.

The Causes of Jakarta’s Sinking

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is sinking. The city is home to 10 million people and is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. There are a number of causes of Jakarta’s sinking, including extractions of groundwater and oil, and the city’s location on a swamp. Let’s take a closer look at the causes of Jakarta’s sinking.

Over-exploitation of Groundwater

Jakarta is home to 10 million people, and it is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current trends continue, parts of the city could be submerged by 2025. There are a number of reasons for this, but the main cause is over-exploitation of groundwater.

Groundwater is water that is found underground in aquifers. Aquifers are formations of rock, sand, or gravel that can store water. Jakarta sits on an aquifer that is being heavily exploited by both industry and individuals.

In order to meet the water needs of its rapidly growing population, Jakarta has been pumping ever-increasing amounts of water from its aquifer. This has caused the water level in the aquifer to drop dramatically. As a result, the land above it has begun to sink.

The sinking of land is known as subsidence. It occurs when groundwater is no longer able to support the weight of the land above it. The land then begins to compact and sink. In Jakarta’s case, subsidence is exacerbated by a number of factors, including:

-The city’s location on a soft, clay-like soil known as Batu Berai
-The city’s high population density and lack of green space
-The city’s heavy reliance on groundwater for both drinking and industry

Subsidence is a serious problem because it can lead to flooding and infrastructure damage. In Jakarta, subsidence has already caused widespread flooding and damage to buildings and roads. If steps are not taken to address this problem, it will only get worse in the years to come.

Rapid Urbanization

Rapid urbanization is one of the primary causes of Jakarta’s sinking. As the city has grown rapidly over the past few decades, more and more buildings and infrastructure have been built. This has put a strain on the city’s resources, causing the ground to sink.

Jakarta is built on a swampy area, which makes it particularly susceptible to sinking. The city is also home to a large number of rivers and canals, which can erode the ground and cause it to sink.

Climate change is also a contributing factor to Jakarta’s sinking. As the earth’s atmosphere gets warmer, the sea level rises. This causes the water table to rise, and the ground to sink.

The Consequences of Jakarta’s Sinking

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If nothing is done to stop the city from sinking, it could be completely submerged by 2050. This would have devastating consequences for the city’s 10 million residents. Let’s take a look at some of the consequences of Jakarta’s sinking.


Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of over 10 million people. It is also one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world, with some areas subsiding by as much as 10 centimeters (4 inches) per year. This sinking is caused by a number of factors, including Jakarta’s high level of rainfall, its extensive use of groundwater, and its location on the Sunda Shelf, a large underwater plateau that is slowly sinking.

Flooding is a major problem in Jakarta, and it is only getting worse as the city sinks. Since 2011, Jakarta has experienced some of the worst flooding in its history, with large parts of the city being inundated for weeks at a time. In 2013, a particularly severe flood caused over 100 deaths and forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their homes. The flooding problem is only likely to get worse as Jakarta continues to sink and sea levels continue to rise.

Jakarta’s sinking has also caused extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. Sinkholes are common, and roads and buildings often collapse without warning. In 2016, a sinkhole measuring 5 meters (16 feet) wide and 20 meters (66 feet) deep opened up in front of a school in central Jakarta, killing one student and injuring several others.

The Indonesian government has been working on various plans to stop Jakarta from sinking further, including building giant seawalls around the city and creating artificial islands off the coast that would act as water catchments. However, these plans are expensive and have met with limited success so far.


Subsidence is the gradual sinking or downward settlement of the ground’s surface with changes in topography. This phenomenon occurs when water is withdrawn from an aquifer at a rate greater than it is replenished. When too much water has been extracted from an aquifer, the pores or spaces in the sediment and rock fill with air and collapse. This loss of water causes compaction and subsidence.

Jakarta, Indonesia is one of the world’s fastest sinking cities. It is estimated that the city is sinking up to 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per year. This high rate of subsidence is caused by a number of factors, including over-exploitation of groundwater resources, weak geological formations, and heavy rains.

Over-exploitation of groundwater resources is the main cause of subsidence in Jakarta. In order to meet the demands of its rapidly growing population, Jakarta has been pumping large amounts of water from underground aquifers. This has caused the water level in these aquifers to drop, leading to subsidence. In addition, weak geological formations make Jakarta particularly vulnerable to subsidence. The city is built on clay soils that are easily compacted when they become wet. Heavy rains can also contribute to subsidence by increasing the amount of water in soils and weakening their structure.

The high rate of subsidence in Jakarta has led to a number of problems for the city’s residents. Sinking buildings have crushed cars and caused roads to crack and sink. In some areas, entire neighborhoods have been abandoned due to severe flooding and lack of infrastructure support. The Indonesian government has attempted to address these problems with a number of mitigation efforts, including banning new wells in some areas and regulating groundwater extraction; however, these measures have so far failed to stop Jakarta from sinking.

The Solutions to Jakarta’s Sinking

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest sinking cities in the world. In some areas, the ground has sunk more than six feet in the past decade. The city is sinking because of two main reasons: the over-extraction of groundwater and the landfill sites built on the marshy land. The good news is, there are solutions to this problem.

Regulation of Groundwater Use

In order to solve the problem of Jakarta sinking, the use of groundwater needs to be better regulated. There are three main ways to do this:

1) Improve monitoring of groundwater extraction
2) Limit the amount of water that can be extracted
3) Encourage the use of alternative sources of water

Monitoring of groundwater extraction can be improved by installing meters on wells and using satellite imagery to track changes in ground water level. This data can be used to limit the amount of water that can be extracted.

Alternative sources of water should also be encouraged, such as rainwater harvesting and treated wastewater. Using these sources will help to reduce the pressure on groundwater resources.

Improved Urban Planning

Jakarta is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If the current rate of sinking continues, large portions of the city will be submerged by 2025. There are several causes of Jakarta’s sinking, but improved urban planning can help to mitigate the problem.

Jakarta’s sinking is caused by a combination of natural and man-made factors. The city is built on a swampy area which is slowly compacting as it dries out. This natural process is exacerbated by the fact that Jakarta’s population is growing rapidly, putting an ever-increasing amount of weight on the ground. Additionally, large amounts of groundwater are being extracted from beneath the city for use in industry and agriculture. This has caused the ground to subside even further.

mitigating Jakarta’s sinking problem, improved urban planning is essential. One way to do this is by regulating and monitoring the extraction of groundwater. Another is to encourage green space and planting trees, which can help to stabilize the soil. Finally, better building regulations can help to reduce the weight on the ground and prevent further subsidence.

While it will not be easy to solve Jakarta’s sinking problem completely, improved urban planning can help to reduce its rate of sinkage and prevent even more damage to the city in the future.

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