Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. In this blog post, we’ll explore the science behind the claim that Jakarta is sinking and what this means for the city’s future.
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Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current trends continue, parts of the city could be submerged by 2050.
So what is causing this sinking? And what can be done to stop it? Let’s take a look at the science behind the claim that Jakarta is sinking.
The science behind the claim
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current rates of sinking continue, large parts of the city could be submerged by 2050. The causes of Jakarta’s sinking are many and complex, but they can be boiled down to three main contributing factors: (1) ground water extraction, (2) rainfall, and (3) sea level rise. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at each of these factors and what they mean for the city’s future.
The land subsidence
In recent years, there has been a lot of talk about Jakarta sinking. The city is home to more than 10 million people, and it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. With all of this growth, it’s no wonder that people are concerned about the city’s future.
There are a few scientific factors that contribute to land subsidence, or the sinking of the ground. One is compaction. This occurs when the soil is compressed by the weight of buildings and other structures. Another factor is groundwater depletion. This happens when water is removed from the ground faster than it can be replenished.
Jakarta is especially vulnerable to land subsidence because it is built on marshy ground and has a high water table. This means that there is already a lot of water in the ground, and when it is removed, the ground sinks.
The good news is that there are ways to stop Jakarta from sinking further. One way is to recharge the groundwater by pumping water back into the ground. Another way is to reduce compaction by not building on certain types of soil or by using lighter materials for construction.
With a little bit of effort, we can ensure that Jakarta remains a safe and thriving city for years to come.
The sea-level rise
Climate change is causing the global sea level to rise. This is because as the Earth warms, the ice melts and the oceans expand. The main contribution to rising seas comes from the thermal expansion of the oceans: as ocean water warms, it expands and takes up more space. This process contributes about a third of the current sea-level rise.
The other major contribution to sea-level rise is from the loss of ice from Greenland and Antarctica. The Greenland ice sheet is especially vulnerable because its surface is melting due to warmer temperatures. As the ice melts, it flows into the ocean and raises sea levels.
Jakarta, Indonesia, is one of the cities that is particularly vulnerable to rising seas. This is because Jakarta is situated on a low-lying coastal plain, and much of the city lies below sea level. In addition, Jakarta is experiencing significant land subsidence (sinking), which exacerbates the effects of sea-level rise.
A number of factors are contributing to land subsidence in Jakarta, including:
-Extraction of groundwater: When groundwater is extracted for use (for example, for agriculture or industry),the empty space that is created can cause land subsidence.
-Compaction of sediment: When sediment compacts (for example, due to construction or natural processes), it can cause land subsidence.
-Natural processes: Land subsidence can also be caused by natural processes, such as tectonic activity or changes in soil composition.
The human impact
The impact of land subsidence
The impact of land subsidence is far-reaching. In addition to causing buildings and infrastructure to sink, it can also lead to increased flooding and decreased water quality. As the land sinks, it can cause groundwater to be displaced and contaminate surface water supplies. Additionally, sinking land can damage sewer lines, roads, and bridges.
Subsidence also affects ecosystems by altering water flows and changing habitats. For example, as an area subsides, the flow of rivers and streams can be disrupted. This can lead to changes in the types of plants and animals that live in an area. Additionally, subsidence can cause problems for people who rely on groundwater for drinking, irrigation, or industry. As the land sinks, wells can go dry or become contaminated with saltwater.
The impact of sea-level rise
Jakarta, Indonesia, is one of the fastest-sinking cities in the world. If current rates of sea-level rise and subsidence continue, large parts of the city could be submerged by 2050.
The human impact on this process is twofold. On the one hand, the pumping of groundwater for domestic and industrial use is causing the land to sink. On the other hand, climate change is causing the oceans to swell as a result of thermal expansion and melting ice sheets.
The combination of these factors means that Jakarta is facing an existential threat from rising sea levels. The city authorities are well aware of this problem and are taking steps to address it, but they are up against a challenging timetable.
The way forward
In recent years, there have been increasing reports of Jakarta, Indonesia sinking. The local government has even set up a task force to investigate the matter. So, what is the science behind the claim that Jakarta is sinking?
Mitigating land subsidence
There are several ways to mitigate land subsidence, including:
-Reducing the extraction of groundwater
-Stabilizing soils through compaction or soil improvement
-Restricting development on areas at risk of subsidence
-Building structures that are resistant to subsidence
Adapting to sea-level rise
Climate change is causing the global mean sea level to rise at an unprecedented rate, and the resulting increase in flooding is one of the most serious threats to coastal communities around the world.
In order to adapt to this reality, we need to understand how sea-level rise will affect our coastlines in the future. Scientists use a variety of methods to predict future sea levels, but one of the most reliable is called “tide gauge forecasting.”
Tide gauge forecasting involves measuring the current water level at a particular location over time. This data can then be used to extrapolate future sea levels.
The problem with tide gauge forecasting is that it only works on a local scale. That means that it can’t be used to predict sea-level rise in other parts of the world.
Global climate models are another way of predicting future sea levels, but they have their own limitations. One issue is that these models don’t account for all of the variables that affect sea level, such as changes in land use or ice melt.
Another problem with global climate models is that they can’t predict sea-level rise on a local scale. That’s because these models don’t take into account all of the factors that contribute to sea-level rise, such as changes in land use or ice melt.
Jakarta, Indonesia is one city that is particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise. The Jakarta Bay area is actually sinking at a rate of about 2 cm per year due to a combination of factors, including soil compaction and ground water extraction. As a result, the city is at risk of being inundated by floods on an annual basis.
To adapt to this reality, the Indonesian government has proposed building a series of “lock gates” that would block floodwaters from entering Jakarta Bay. The government has also suggested raising the elevation of buildings and constructing seawalls around vulnerable areas.